On this day in the year 365, a powerful earthquake off the coast of Greece caused a tsunami that devastated the city of Alexandria, Egypt. Although there were no measuring tools at the time, scientists now estimate that the quake was actually two tremors in succession, the largest of which is thought to have had a magnitude of 8.0.
Aurangzeb celebrated being the emperor of Mughal Empire at Delhi. He was informally enthroned.
In the first major land battle of the Civil War, a large Union force under General Irvin McDowell troops along the Bull Run stream in Virginia was routed by a Confederate army under General Pierre G.T. Beauregard.
Jairamdas Doulatram, great leader, journalist and freedom fighter, was born at Karachi.
W.C. Bonerjee, first President of Indian National Congress, passed away.
Establishment of ‘Mumabi Marathi Sahitya Sangh’.
On this day in 1944, Adolf Hitler takes to the airwaves to announce that the attempt on his life has failed and that “accounts will be settled.”
Indian Constitution Assembly accepted the tricolour flag as its National Flag. This flag is with three equal horizontal stripes of Saffron (Sacrifice), White (Truth) and Green (Prosperity) and a Chakra is superimposed on white (Dharma Chakra on the capitol of Ashoka’s Pillar at Sarnath) in blue colour having 24 spokes. The ratio of the width to length is two to three.
Kashi Vidyapeeth was given recognisation as University.
After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam across the Nile River in Egypt was completed on July 21, 1970. More than two miles long at its crest, the massive $1 billion dam ended the cycle of flood and drought in the Nile River region, and exploited a tremendous source of renewable energy, but had a controversial environmental impact.
Hindi Post Guards was established by Government.
Neelam Sanjiva Reddi was elected as the President of India.
Indian National Satellite (INSAT-1C) was launched. This was operational multi-purpose communication and meteorology satellite. It served for only one and a half years. It was launched by European Ariane launch vehicle Ariane-3.
A. B. Vajpayee, Prime Minister, announced a special fund for population projects with the Planning Commission providing seed money of Rs. 100 crores.
On this day in 2011, NASA’s space shuttle program completed its final, and 135th, mission, when the shuttle Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. During the program’s 30-year history, its five orbiters—Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour—carried more than 350 people into space and flew more than 500 million miles.